Item Development – Benefits of editing items before the review process
Some test developers recommend a single round of item editing (or editorial review), usually right before items are field tested. When schedules and resources allow for it, I recommend that test developers conduct two rounds of editing—one right after the items are written and one after content and bias reviews are completed. This post addresses the first round of editing, to take place after items are drafted.
Why have two rounds of editing? In both rounds, we will be looking for grammar or spelling errors, but the first round serves as a filter to keep items with serious flaws from making it to content review or bias review.
In their chapter in Educational Measurement (4 th ed.), Cynthia Shmeiser and Catherine Welch explain that an early round of item editing “serves to detect and correct deficiencies in the technical qualities of the items and item pools early in the development process.” They recommend that test developers use this round of item editing to do a cursory review of whether the items meet the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.
Items that have obvious item writing flaws should be culled in the first round of item editing and either sent back to the item writers or removed. This may include item writing errors like cluing or having options that do not match the stem grammatically. Ideally, these errors will be caught and corrected in the drafting process, but a few items may have slipped through the cracks.
In the initial round of editing, we will also be looking for proper formatting of the items. Did the item writers use the correct item types for the specified content? Did they follow the formatting rules in our style guide? Is all supporting content (e.g., pictures, references) present in the item? Did the item writers record all of the metadata for the item, like its content area, cognitive level, or reference? Again, if an item does not match the required format, it should be sent back to the item writers or removed.
It is helpful to look for these issues before going to content review or bias review because these types of errors may distract your review committees from their tasks; the committees may be wasting time reviewing items that should not be delivered anyway due to formatting flaws. You do not want to get all the way through content and bias reviews only to find that a large number of your items have to be returned to the drafting process. We will discuss review committee processes in the following posts.
For best practice guidance and practical advice for the five key stages of test and exam development, check out our white paper: 5 Steps to Better Tests.