FAQ – “Testing Out” of Training

Posted by Kristin Bernor

Let’s explore what it means to “test out”, what the business benefits include and how Questionmark enables you to do this in a simple, timely and valid manner.

“Testing out” of training saves time and money by allowing participants to forego unneeded training. It makes training more valid and respected, and so more likely to impact behavior, because it focuses training on the people who need it and further allows those that do know it, to learn additional knowledge, skills and abilities.

The key to “testing out” of training is that the test properly measures what it is you are training. If that is the case, then if someone can demonstrate by passing the test that they know it already, then they don’t need to do the training. Why testing out can sometimes be a hard sell is if the test doesn’t really measure the same outcomes as the training – so just because you pass the test, you might not in fact know the training. So, the key is to write a good test.

Online assessments are about both staying compliant with regulatory requirements AND giving business value. Assessments help ensure your workforce is competent and reduce risk, but they also give business value in improved efficiency, knowledge and customer service.

What does it mean to “test out” of training?

Many organizations create tests that allow participants to “test out” of training if they pass. Essentially, if you already know the material being taught, then you don’t need to spend time in the training. Testing them on training that is already know is a waste of time, value and resources. Directing them to training that is necessary ensures the candidate is motivated and feels they are spending their time wisely. Everyone wins!

Why is this so important? Or What are the advantages to incorporating “testing out”?

The key advantage of this approach is that you save time when people don’t have to attend the training that they don’t need. Time is money for most organizations, and saving time is an important benefit.

Suppose, for example, you have 1,000 people who need to take some training that lasts 2 hours. This is 2,000 hours of people’s time. Now, suppose you can give a 20-minute test that 25% of people pass and therefore skip the training. The total time taken is 333 hours for the test and 1,500 hours for the training, which adds up to 1,833 hours. So having one-fourth of the test takers skip the training saves 9% of the time that would have been required for everyone to attend the training.

In addition to saving time, using diagnostic tests in this way helps people who attend training courses focus their attention on areas they don’t know well and be more receptive to the training that is beneficial.

Is it appropriate to allow “testing out” of all training?

Obviously if you follow this approach, you’ll need to ensure that your tests are appropriate and sufficient – that they measure the right knowledge and skills that the training would otherwise cover.

You’ll need to check your regulations to confirm that this is permissible for you, but most regulators will see sense here.

How Questionmark can be used to “test out”

Online assessments are a consistent and cost-effective means of validating that your workforce knows the law, your procedures and your products. If you are required to document training, it’s the most reliable way of doing so. When creating and delivering assessments within Questionmark, it’s quite simple to qualify a candidate once they reach a score threshold. If they correctly answer a series of items and pass the assessment, this denotes that further training is not needed. It is imperative that the assessment accurately tests for the requisite knowledge that are part of the training objectives.

The candidate can then focus on training that is pertinent, worthwhile and beneficial to both themselves and the company. If they answer incorrectly and are unable to pass the assessment, then training is necessary until they are able to master the information and demonstrate this in a test.

How is the SAP Global Certification program going? A re-interview with SAP’s manager of global certification, part 1.

Posted by Zainab Fayaz

Back in 2016, John Kleeman, Founder and Executive Director of Questionmark interviewed Ralf Kirchgaessner, Manager of SAP Global Certification program about their use of Questionmark software in their Certification in the Cloud program and about their move to online proctoring. You can see the interview on the Questionmark blog here. We also thought readers might be interested in an update, so here is a short interview between the two on how SAP are getting on three years later:

John: Could you give us an update on where you are with the Certification in the Cloud program?

Ralf: The uptake, adoption and increase of Certification in the Cloud is tremendous! Over the years we have seen a significant increase in the volume of candidates taking exams in the cloud; the numbers doubled from 2016 to 2017 and increased almost by 60% in 2018. This means more than 50% of SAP Global Certification exams are now done remotely!

John: Are all your SAP Global Certification exams now available online in the cloud?

Ralf: Nearly so. By mid-2019 we plan on having the complete portfolio of every SAP exam available on the cloud. This is great news for our learners who have invested in a Certification in the Cloud subscription. So, we then have Certification in the Cloud not only for SAP SuccessFactors and SAP Ariba, but for all products, including SAP C/4HANA.

John: How many different languages are your exams translated into?

Ralf: This depends on the portfolio. Some of our certifications are available in English and others, such as for SAP Business One are translated in up to 20 languages.

John: How are you dealing with the fast pace of change within SAP software in a certification context? How do you ensure certifications stay up to date when the software changes?

Ralf: This is of course a challenge. In previous years, it was the case of getting certified once every few years. However, now you must keep your skills up-to-date and stay current with quarterly release cycles of our SAP Cloud solutions. Also, for people who are first timers or newly enter the SAP eco-system; it is important that they are certified on the latest quarterly release.

To help overcome this challenge, we have developed an agile approach to updating our exams; we use the Questionmark platform for those who are new to the eco-system to help them getting certified initially. We also have a very good process in place and often use the same subject matter experts when it comes to keeping up to the speed of software changes.

For already certified professionals, another way to remain up to date is through our ‘Stay Current’ program. For some of our solutions, partners have to come back every 3 months to show that they are staying current. They do this in the form of taking a short “delta” knowledge assessment. For instance, for certified professionals of SAP SuccessFactors it is mandatory to stay current in order to get provisioning access to the software systems.

In 2018, SAP’s certification approach was acknowledged with the ITCC Innovation Award. Industry peers like from Microsoft, IBM and others recognized this great achievement with this award.

 

Secrets to Measuring & Enhancing Learning Results: Webinar

Julie ProfilePosted by Julie Delazyn

Research has shown that assessments play an important role on learning and retention — and the benefits vary before, during and after a learning experience. No matter where learning occurs, the goal remains the same: ensuring people have the knowledge, skills and abilities to perform well.

So, how can you use assessments to measure and enhance learning within your organization?

Check out our newest 30-minute webinar – and register today!

  • The Secrets to Measuring and Enhancing Learning Results
  • Date & Time: Wed, Dec 7  at 4:00 p.m. UK GMT / 11:00 a.m. US EDT

Join us as we discuss the important role assessments play within the learning process and explore the benefits of using them before, during and after learning. We’ll also give you some useful pointers and resources to take away.

Register for the webinar now. We look forward to seeing you at the session!

Online Proctoring: FAQs

John Kleeman HeadshotPosted by John Kleeman

Online proctoring was a hot-button topic at Questionmark’s annual Users Conference. And though we’ve discussed the pros and cons in this blog and even offered an infographic highlighting online versus test-center proctoring, many interesting questions arose during the Ensuring Exam Integrity with Online Proctoring  session I presented with Steve Lay at Questionmark Conference 2016.

I’ve compiled a few of those questions and offered answers to them. For context and additional information, make sure to check out a shortened version of our presentation. If you have any questions you’d like to add to the list, comment below!

What control does the online proctor have on the exam?

With Questionmark solutions, the online proctor can:

  • Converse with the participant
  • Pause and resume the exam
  • Give extra time if needed
  • Terminate the exam

What does an online proctor do if he/she suspects cheating?

Usually the proctor will terminate the exam and file a report to the exam sponsor.

What happens if the exam is interrupted, e.g. by someone coming in to the room?

This depends on your security protocols. Some organizations may decide  to terminate the exam and require another attempt. In some cases, if it seems an honest mistake, the organization may decide that the proctor can use discretion to permit the exam to continue.

Which is more secure, online or face-to-face proctoring?online proctoring

On balance, they are about equally secure.

Unfortunately there has been a lot of corruption with face-to-face proctoring, and online proctoring makes it much harder for participant and proctor to collude as there is no direct contact, and all communication can be logged.

But if the proctors are honest, it is easier to detect cheating aids in a face-to-face environment than via a video link.

What kind of exams is online proctoring good for?

Online proctoring works well for exams where:

  • The stakes are high and so you need the security of a proctor
  • Participants are in many different places, making travel to test centers costly
  • Participants are computer literate – have and know how to use their own PCs
  • Exams take 2-3 hours or less

If your technology or subject area changes frequently, then online proctoring is particularly good because you can easily give more frequent exams, without requiring candidates to travel.

What kind of exams is online proctoring less good for?

Online proctoring is less appropriate for exams where:

  • Exams are long and participants needs breaks
  • Exams where participants are local and it’s easy to get them into one place to take the exam
  • Participants do not have access to their own PC and/or are not computer literate

How do you prepare for online proctoring?

Here are some preparation tasks:

  • Brief and communicate with your participants about online proctoring
  • Define clearly the computer requirements for participants
  • Agree what happens in the event of incidents – e.g. suspected cheating, exam interruptions
  • Agree what ID is acceptable for participants and whether ID information is going to be stored
  • Make a candidate agreement or honor code which sets out what you expect from people to encourage them to take the exam fairly

I hope these Q&A and the linked presentation are interesting. You can find out more about Questionmark’s online proctoring solution here.

Will testing employees reduce fines for compliance errors?

John Kleeman Headshot

Posted by John Kleeman

If a bank faces a fine of millions for money laundering and then can prove, defensibly, that the ‘accused’ had passed competency tests, would that reduce or eliminate the fine? More generally, suppose employees do something wrong and the corporation is facing a regulatory fine. Does it make a difference if those employees were certified? Is it a defence against regulatory action that you took all the measures you could to prevent error?

We are asked this question from time to time, and the answer varies considerably by regulator and by offence. But in general having competent/certified people and good compliant processes will reduce the impact to the corporation of making a compliance mistake. In some cases it might eliminate a fine, but usually not.

Here are three specific examples where a good compliance program can reduce or eliminate fines.

Prosecutors should therefore attempt to determine whether a corporation’s compliance program is merely a “paper program” or whether it was designed, implemented, reviewed … in an effective manner. In addition, prosecutors should determine whether the corporation has provided for a staff sufficient to audit, document, analyze, and utilize the results of the corporation’s compliance efforts. Prosecutors also should determine whether the corporation’s employees are adequately informed about the compliance program and are convinced of the corporation’s commitment to it. This will enable the prosecutor to make an informed decision as to whether the corporation has adopted and implemented a truly effective compliance program that … may result in a decision to charge only the corporation’s employees and agents or to mitigate charges or sanctions against the corporation.

  • The UK Ministry of Justice guidance on the Bribery Act recommends communication and training around bribery and says that “it is a full defence for an organisation to prove that despite a particular case of bribery it nevertheless had adequate procedures in place to prevent persons associated with it from bribing.”
  • Similarly, in Spain, the Spanish criminal code has been updated so that companies may avoid criminal prosecution if they have an effective compliance program in effect including evidence that employees have had sufficient training in the compliance program.

Fines rising to over one billion pounds in 2014 and nearly one billion pounds in 2015In general, the issue is more diffuse. For example, the UK Financial Conduct Authority, which has issued many huge fines over the years (see graph right), does not seem to explicitly reduce fines based on compliance measures.

But its Penalties Manual does say that fines should be increased if the actions are deliberate or reckless or if the breach resulted from systematic weaknesses in the firm’s procedures. Equally, if the breach was inadvertent and there is no evidence that the breach indicates a widespread problem or weakness, the fine might be lower.

So how best to summarize this?

The biggest benefit of a programme for competency testing for employees is that, in conjunction with other compliance measures, it will reduce the chances of an infraction in the first place.

Having certified or competent people is not a “get out of jail free” card but if part of a professional compliance programme, it will help with many regulators in mitigating financial penalties after an infraction.

Agree or disagree? 10 tips for better surveys — Part 2

John Kleeman HeadshotPosted by John Kleeman

In my first post in this series, I explained that survey respondents go through a four-step process when they answer each question: comprehend the question, retrieve/recall the information that it requires, make a judgement on the answer and then select the response. There is a risk of error at each step. I also explained the concept of “satisficing”, where participants often give a satisfactory answer rather than an optimal one – another potential source of error.

Today, I’m offering some tips for effective online attitude survey design, based on research evidence. Following these tips should help you reduce error in your attitude surveys.

Tip #1 – Avoid Agree/Disagree questions

Although these are one of the most common types of questions used in surveys, you should try to avoid questions which ask participants whether they agree with a statement.

There is an effect called acquiescence bias, where some participants are more likely to agree than disagree. It seems from the research that some participants are easily influenced and so tend to agree with things easily. This seems to apply particularly to participants who are more junior or less well educated, who may tend to think that what is asked of them might be true. For example Krosnick and Presser state that across 10 studies, 52 percent of people agreed with an assertion compared to 42 percent of those disagreeing with its opposite. If you are interested in finding more about this effect, see this 2010 paper by Saris, Revilla, Krosnick and Schaeffer.

Satisficing – where participants just try to give a good enough answer rather than their best answer – also increases the number of “agree” answers.

For example, do not ask a question like this:

My overall health is excellent. Do you:

  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neither Agree or Disagree
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree

Instead re-word it to be construct specific:

How would you rate your health overall?

  • Excellent
  • Very good
  • Good
  • Fair
  • Bad
  • Very bad

 

Tip #2 – Avoid Yes/No and True/False questions

For the same reason, you should avoid Yes/No questions and True/False questions in surveys. People are more likely to answer Yes than No due to acquiescence bias.

Tip #3 – Each question should address one attitude only

Avoid double-barrelled questions that ask about more than one thing. It’s very easy to ask a question like this:

  • How satisfied are you with your pay and work conditions?

However, someone might be satisfied with their pay but dissatisfied with their work conditions, or vice versa. So make it two separate questions.

Tip #4 – Minimize the difficulty of answering each question

If a question is harder to answer, it is more likely that participants will satisfice – give a good enough answer rather than the best answer. To quote Stanford Professor  Jon Krosnick, “Questionnaire designers should work hard to minimize task difficulty”.  For example:

  • Use as few words as possible in question and responses.
  • Use words that all your audience will know.
  • Where possible, ask questions about the recent past not the distant past as the recent past is easier to recall.
  • Decompose complex judgement tasks into simpler ones, with a single dimension to each one.
  • Where possible make judgements absolute rather than relative.
  • Avoid negatives. Just like in tests and exams, using negatives in your questions adds cognitive load and makes the question less likely to get an effective answer.

The less cognitive load involved in questions, the more likely you are to get accurate answers.

Tip #5 – Randomize the responses if order is not importantSetting choices to be shuffled

The order of responses can significantly influence which ones get chosen.

There is a primacy effect in surveys where participants more often choose the first response than a later one. Or if they are satisficing, they can choose the first response that seems good enough rather than the best one.

There can also be a recency effect whereby participants read through a list of choices and choose the last one they have read.

In order to avoid these effects, if your choices do not have a clear progression or some other reason for being in a particular order, randomize them.  This is easy to do in Questionmark software and will remove the effect of response order on your results.

Here is a link to the next segment of this series: Agree or disagree? 10 tips for better surveys — part 3