Job Task Analysis Surveys Legally Required?

John Kleeman Headshot

Posted by John Kleeman

I had a lot of positive feedback on my blog post Making your Assessment Valid: 5 Tips from Miami. There is a lot of interest in how to ensure your assessment is valid, ensuring that it measures what it is supposed to measure.

If you are assessing for competence in a job role or for promotion into a job role, one critical step in making your assessment valid is to have a good, current analysis of what knowledge, skills and abilities are needed to do the job role. This is called a job task analysis (JTA), and the most common way of doing this analysis is to conduct a JTA Survey.

Job Task Analysis SurveyIn a JTA Survey, you ask existing people in the job role, or other experts, what tasks they do. A common practice is to survey them on how important each task is, how difficult it is and how often it is done. The resultant reports then guide the construction of the test blueprint and which topics and how many questions on each you include in the test.

If you cannot show that your assessment matches the requirements of a job, then your assessment is not only invalid but it is likely unfair — if you use it to select people for the job or measure competence in the job. And if you use an invalid assessment to select people for promotion or recruitment into the job, you may face legal action from people you reject.

Not only is this common sense, but it was also confirmed by a recent US district court ruling against the Boston Police Department. In this court case, sergeants who had been rejected for promotion to lieutenant following an exam sued that the assessment was unfair, and won.

The judge ruled that the exam was not sufficiently valid, because it omitted many job skills crucial for a police lieutenant role, and so it was not fair to be used to select for the role (see news report).

The 82-page judge’s ruling sets out in detail why the exam was unfair. He references the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures which state:

“There should be a job analysis which includes an analysis of the important work behavior(s) required for successful performance and their relative importance”

But the judge ruled that although a job analysis had been done, it had not been used properly in the test construction process. He said:

“When using a multiple choice exam, the developer must convert the job analysis result into a test plan to ensure a direct and strong relationship between the job analysis and the exam.

However, in this case, the job analysis was not used sufficiently well to construct the exam. The judge went on to say:

The Court cannot find, however, that the test plan ensured a strong relationship between the job analysis and the exam. … too many skills and abilities were missing from the … test outline. 

Crucially, he concluded:

“And a high score on the … exam simply was not a good indicator that a candidate would be a good lieutenant”.

Due to the pace of business change and technological advance, job roles are changing fast. Make sure that you conduct regular JTAs  of roles in your organization and make sure your assessments match the most important job tasks. Find out more about Job Task Analysis here.

Making your Assessment Valid: 5 Tips from Miami

John Kleeman Headshot

Posted by John Kleeman

A key reason people use Questionmark’s assessment management system is that it helps you make more valid assessments. To remind you, a valid assessment is one that genuinely measures what it is supposed to measure. Having an effective process to ensure your assessments are valid, reliable and trustable was an important topic at Questionmark Conference 2016 in Miami last week. Here is some advice I heard:

Reporting back from 3 days of learning and networking at Questionmark Conference 2016 in Miami

Tip 1: Everything starts from the purpose of your assessment. Define this clearly and document it well. A purpose that is not well defined or that does not align with the needs of your organization will result in a poor test. It is useful to have a formal process to kick off  a new assessment to ensure the purpose is defined clearly and is aligned with business needs.

Tip 2: A Job Task Analysis survey is a great way of defining the topics/objectives for new-hire training assessments. One presenter at the conference sent out a survey to the top performing 50 percent of employees in a job role and asked questions on a series of potential job tasks. For each job task, he asked how difficult it is (complexity), how important it is (priority) and how often it is done (frequency). He then used the survey results to define the structure of knowledge assessments for new hires to ensure they aligned with needed job skills.

Tip 3: The best way to ensure that a workplace assessment starts and remains valid is continual involvement with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). They help you ensure that the content of the assessment matches the content needed for the job and ensure this stays the case as the job changes. It’s worth investing in training your SMEs in item writing and item review. Foster a collaborative environment and build their confidence.

Tip 4: Allow your participants (test-takers) to feed back into the process. This will give you useful feedback to improve the questions and the validity of the assessment. It’s also an important part of being transparent and open in your assessment programme, which is useful because people are less likely to cheat if they feel that the process is well-intentioned. They are also less likely to complain about the results being unfair. For example it’s useful to write an internal blog explaining why and how you create the assessments and encourage feedback.

Lunch with a view at Questionmark Conference 2016 in Miami

Tip 5: As the item bank grows and as your assessment programme becomes more successful, make sure to manage the item bank and review items. Retire items that are no longer relevant or when they have been overexposed. This keeps the item bank useful, accurate and valid.

There was lots more at the conference – excitement that Questionmark NextGen authoring is finally here, a live demo of our new easy to use Printing and Scanning solution … and having lunch on the hotel terrace in the beautiful Miami spring sunshine – with Questionmark branded sunglasses to keep cool.

There was a lot of buzz at the conference about documenting your assessment decisions and making sure your assessments validly measure job competence. There is increasing understanding that assessment is a process not a project, and also that to be used to measure competence or to select for a job role, an assessment must cover all important job tasks.

I hope these tips on making assessments valid are helpful. Click here for more information on Questionmark’s assessment management system.

Writing JTA Task Statements

Austin Fossey-42Posted by Austin Fossey

One of the first steps in an evidence-centered design (ECD) approach to assessment development is a domain analysis. If you work in credentialing, licensure, or workplace assessment, you might accomplish this step with a job task analysis (JTA) study.

A JTA study gathers examples of tasks that potentially relate to a specific job. These tasks are typically harvested from existing literature or observations, reviewed by subject matter experts (SMEs), and rated by practitioners or other stakeholder groups across relevant dimensions (e.g., applicability to the job, frequency of the task). The JTA results are often used later to determine the content areas, cognitive processes, and weights that will be on the test blueprint.

 Questionmark has tools for authoring and delivering JTA items, as well as some limited analysis tools for basic response frequency distributions. But if we are conducting a JTA study, we need to start at the beginning: how do we write task statements?

One of my favorite sources on the subject is Mark Raymond and Sandra Neustel’s chapter, “Determining the Content of Credentialing Examinations,” in The Handbook of Test Development. The chapter provides information on how to organize a JTA study, how to write tasks, how to analyze the results, and how to use the results to build a test blueprint. The chapter is well-written, and easy to understand. It provides enough detail to make it useful without being too dense. If you are conducting a JTA study, I highly recommend checking out this chapter.

Raymond and Neustel explain that a task statement can refer to a physical or cognitive activity related to the job/practice. The format of a task statement should always follow a subject/verb/object format, though it might be expanded to include qualifiers for how the task should be executed, the resources needed to do the task, or the context of its application. They also underscore that most task statements should have only one action and one object. There are some exceptions to this rule, but if there are multiple actions and objects, they typically should be split into different tasks. As a hint, they suggest critiquing any task statement that has the words “and” or “or” in it.

Here is an example of a task statement from the Michigan Commission on Law Enforcement Standards’ Statewide Job Analysis of the Patrol Officer Position: Task 320: “[The patrol officer can] measure skid marks for calculation of approximate vehicle speed.”

I like this example because it is pretty specific, certainly better than just saying “determine vehicle’s speed.” It also provides a qualifier for how good their measurement needs to be (“approximate”). The context might be improved by adding more context (e.g., “using a tape measure”), but that might be understood by their participant population.

Raymond and Neustel also caution researchers to avoid words that might have multiple meanings or vague meanings. For example, the verb “instruct” could mean many different things—the practitioner might be giving some on-the-fly guidance to an individual or teaching a multi-week lecture. Raymond and Neustel underscore the difficult balance of writing task statements at a level of granularity and specificity that is appropriate for accomplishing defined goals in the workplace, but at a high enough level that we do not overwhelm the JTA participants with minutiae. The authors also advise that we avoid writing task statements that describe best practice or that might otherwise yield a biased positive response.

Early in my career, I observed a JTA SME meeting for an entry-level credential in the construction industry. In an attempt to condense the task list, the psychometrician on the project combined a bunch of seemingly related tasks into a single statement—something along the lines of “practitioners have an understanding of the causes of global warming.” This is not a task statement; it is a knowledge statement, and it would be better suited for a blueprint. It is also not very specific. But most important, it yielded a biased response from the JTA survey sample. This vague statement had the words “global warming” in it, which many would agree is a pretty serious issue, so respondents ranked it as of very high importance. The impact was that this task statement heavily influenced the topic weighting of the blueprint, but when it came time to develop the content, there was not much that could be written. Item writers were stuck having to write dozens of items for a vague yet somehow very important topic. They ended up churning out loads of questions about one of the few topics that were relevant to the practice: refrigerants. The end result was a general knowledge assessment with tons of questions about refrigerants. This experience taught me how a lack of specificity and the phrasing of task statements can undermine the entire content validity argument for an assessment’s results.

If you are new to JTA studies, it is worth mentioning that a JTA can sometimes turn into a significant undertaking. I attended one of Mark Raymond’s seminars earlier this year, and he observed anecdotally that he has had JTA studies take anywhere from three months to over a year. There are many psychometricians who specialize in JTA studies, and it may be helpful to work with them for some aspects of the project, especially when conducting a JTA for the first time. However, even if we use a psychometric consultant to conduct or analyze the JTA, learning about the process can make us better-informed consumers and allow us to handle some of work internally, potentially saving time and money.


Example of task input screen for a JTA item in Questionmark Authoring.

For more information on JTA and other reporting tools that are available with Questionmark, check out this Reporting & Analytics page

Analyzing multiple groups with the JTA Demographic Report

Austin FosseyPosted by Austin Fossey

In my previous post, I talked about how the Job Task Analysis (JTA) Summary Report can be used by subject matter experts (SMEs) to inform their decisions about what content to include in an assessment.

In many JTA studies, we might survey multiple populations of stakeholders who may have different opinions about what content should be on the assessment. The populations we select will be guided by theory or previous research. For example, for a certification assessment, we might survey the practitioners who will be candidates for certification, their managers, and their clients—because our subject matter experts theorize that each of these populations will have different yet relevant opinions about what a competent candidate must know and be able to do in order to be certified.

Instead of requiring you to create multiple JTA survey instruments for each population in the study, Questionmark Analytics allows you to analyze the responses from different groups of survey participants using the JTA Demographic Report.

This report provides demographic comparisons of aggregated JTA responses for each of the populations in the study. Users can simply add a demographic question to their survey so that this information can be used by the JTA Demographic Report. In our earlier example, we might ask survey participants to identify themselves as a practitioner, manager, or client, and then this data would be used to compare results in the report.

As with the JTA Summary Report, there are no requirements for how SMEs must use these data. The interpretations will either be framed out by the test developer using theory or prior research, or the interpretations will be left completely to the SMEs’ expert judgment.

SMEs might wish to investigate topics where populations differed in their ratings, or they may wish to select only those topics where there was universal agreement. They may wish to prioritize or weight certain populations’ opinions, especially if a population is less knowledgeable about the content than others.

The JTA Demographic Report provides a frequency distribution table for each task on the survey, organized by dimension. A chart gives a visual indicator to show differences in response distributions between groups.


Response distribution table and chart comparing JTA responses from nurses and doctors using the Questionmark JTA Demographic Report.

Job Task Analysis Summary Report

Austin FosseyPosted by Austin Fossey

There are several ways to determine content for an assessment blueprint and ultimately for the assessment instrument itself. A job task analysis (JTA) study, as explained by Jim Farrell in a previous post, is one commonly used method to describe potential topics or tasks that need to be assessed to determine if a participant meets minimum qualifications within an area of practice.

In their chapter in Educational Measurement (4 th ed.), Clauser, Margolis, and Chase describe the work that must go in to culling the initial list of topics down to a manageable, relevant list that will be used as the foundation for the test blueprint.

Consider a JTA survey that asks participants to rate the difficulty, importance, and frequency of a list of tasks related to a specific job. Subject matter experts (SMEs) must decide how to interpret the survey results to make decisions about which topics stay and which ones go.

For example, there may be a JTA that surveys employees about potential assessment topics and tasks for an assessment about the safe operation of machinery at the job site. One task relates to being able to hit the emergency shutoff in case something goes wrong. The JTA results may show that respondents think this is very important to know, but it is not something they do very frequently because there are rarely emergency situations that would warrant this action. Similarly, there may a task related to turning the machine on. The respondents may indicate that this is important and something that is done on a daily basis, but it is also very easy to do.

There is no all-encompassing rule for how SMEs should determine which tasks and topics to include in the assessment. It often comes down to having the SMEs discuss the merits of each task, with each SME making a recommendation informed by their own experience and expertise. Reporting the results of the JTA survey will give the SMEs context for their decision-making, much like providing impact data in a standard-setting study.

Questionmark Analytics currently provides two JTA reports: the JTA Summary Report, and the JTA Demographic Report. Today, we will focus on the JTA Summary Report.

This report uses the same assessment selection and result filtering tools that are used throughout Analytics. Users can report on different revisions of the JTA survey and filter by groups, dates, and special field values.

The current JTA survey item only supports categorical and ordinal response data, so the JTA Summary Report provides a table showing the frequency distribution of responses for each task by each of the dimensions (e.g., difficulty, importance, frequency) defined by the test developer in the JTA item.

These response patterns can help SMEs decide which tasks will be assessed and which ones are not required for a valid evaluation of participants.


Response distribution table for a JTA for medical staff using the Questionmark JTA Summary Report.


An easier approach to job task analysis: Q&A

Julie Delazyn HeadshotPosted by Julie Delazyn

Part of the assessment development process is understanding what needs to be tested. When you are testing what someone needs to know in order for them to do their job well, subject matter experts can help you harvest evidence for your test items by observing people at work. That traditionally manual process can take a lot of time and money.

Questionmark’s new job task analysis (JTA) capabilities enable SMEs to harvest information straight from the person doing the job. These tools also offer an easier way to see the frequency, importance, difficulty and applicability of a task in order to know if it’s something that needs to be included in an assessment.

Now that JTA question authoring, assessment creation and reporting are available to users of  Questionmark OnDemand and Questionmark Perception 5.7 I wanted to understand what makes this special and important. Questionmark Product Manager Jim Farrell, who has been working on the JTA question since its conception, was kind enough to speak to me about  its value, why it was created, and how it can now benefit our customers.

Here is a snippet of our conversation:

So … first things first … what exactly IS job task analysis and how would our customers benefit from using it?

Job task analysis, JTA, is a survey that you send out that has a list of tasks, which are broken down into dimensions. Those dimensions are typically difficulty, importance, frequency, and applicability. You want to find out things like this from someone who fills out the surveys: Do they find the job difficult? Do they deem it important? And how frequently do they do it? When you correlate all this data you’ll quickly see the items that are more important to test on and collect information on.

We have a JTA question type in Questionmark Live where you can either build your task list and your dimensions or you can import your tasks through a simple import process—so if you have a spreadsheet with all of your tasks you can easily import it. You would then add those to a survey and send them out to collect information. We also have two JTA reports that allow you to break down results by the actual dimension—just look at the difficulty for all the tasks—or you can look at a summary view of all of your tasks and all the dimensions all at
one time; have a snapshot.

That sounds very interesting and easy to use! I’m interested in how did question type actually came to be.

We initially developed the job task analysis survey for the US Navy. Prior to this, trainers would have to travel with paper and clipboards to submarines, battleships and aircraft carriers and watch sailors and others in the navy do their jobs. We developed the JTA survey to help them be more efficient to collect this data more easily and a lot more quickly than they did before.

What do you think is most valuable and exciting about JTA?

To me, the value comes in the ease of creating the questions and sending them out. And I am probably most excited for our customers. Most customers probably harvest information with paper and clipboard and walking around and watching people do their jobs. That’s a very expensive and time-consuming task, so by being able to send this survey out directly to subject matter experts you’re getting more authentic data because you are getting it right form the SMEs rather than from someone observing the behavior.


It was fascinating for me to understand how JTA was created and how it works … Do you find this kind of question type interesting? How do you see yourself using it? Please share your thoughts below!