In an earlier post, Questionmark’s Julie Delazyn listed 11 tips to help prevent cheating. The third item on that list related to minimizing item exposure; i.e., limiting how and when people can see an item so that content will not be leaked and used for dishonest purposes.
During a co-presentation with Manny Straehle of Assessment, Education, and Research Experts at a Certification Network Group quarterly meeting, I presented a set of considerations that can affect the severity of item exposure. My message was that although item exposure may not be a problem for some assessment programs, assessment managers should consider the design, purpose, candidate population, and level of investment for their assessment when evaluating their content security requirements.
If item exposure is a concern for your assessment program, there are two ways to mitigate the effects of leaked content: limiting opportunities to use the content, and identifying the breach so that it can be corrected. In this post, I will focus on ways to limit content-using opportunities:
Using different assessment forms lowers the number of participants who will see an item in delivery. Having multiple forms also lowers the probability that someone with access to a breached item will actually get to put that information to use. Many organizations achieve this by using multiple, equated forms which are systematically assigned to participants to limit joint cheating or to limit item exposure across multiple retakes. Some organizations also achieve this through the use of randomly generated forms like those in Linear-on-the-Fly Testing (LOFT) or empirically generated forms like those in Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT).
Assessment forms are often cycled in and out of production on a set schedule. Decreasing the amount of time a form is in production will limit the impact of item exposure, but it also requires more content and staff resources to keep rotating forms.
Large Item Banks
Having a lot of items can help you make lots of assessment forms, but this is also important for limiting item exposure in LOFT or CAT. Item banks can also be rotated. For example, some assessment programs will use an item bank for particular testing windows or geographic regions and then switch them at the next administration.
If your item bank can support it, you may also want to put an exposure limit on items or assessment forms. For example, you might set up a rule where an assessment form remains in production until it has been delivered 5,000 times. After that, you may permanently retire that form or shelve it for a predetermined period and use it again later. An extreme example would be an assessment program that only delivers an item during a single testing window before retiring it. The limit will depend on your risk tolerance, the number of items you have available, and the number of participants taking the assessment. Exposure limits are especially important in CAT where some items will get delivered much more frequently than others due to the item selection algorithm.
Short Testing Windows
When participants are only allowed to take a test during a short time period, there are fewer opportunities for people to talk about or share content before the testing window closes. Short testing windows may be less convenient for your participant population, but you can take advantage of the extra downtime to spend time detecting item breaches, developing new content, and performing assessment maintenance.
In my next post, I will provide an overview of methods for identifying instances of an item breach.