6 Steps to Authoring Trustworthy Assessments

AprilPosted by April Barnum

I recently met with customers and the topic of authoring trustworthy assessments and getting back trustable results was a top concern. No matter what they were assessing on, everyone wants results that are trustable, meaning that they are both valid and reliable. The reasons were similar, with the top three being: Safety concerns, being able to assert job competency, and regulatory compliance. I often share this white paper: 5 steps to better tests, as a strong resource to help you plan a strong assessment, and I encourage you to check it out. But here are six authoring steps to that can help you achieve trustworthy assessment results:

  1. Planning the assessment or blueprinting it. You basically are working out what it is that the test covers.
  2. Authoring or creating the items.
  3. Assembling the assessment or harvesting the items and assemble them for use in a test.
  4. Piloting and reviewing the assessment prior to using it for production use.
  5. Delivering the assessment or making the assessment available to participants; following security, proctoring and other requirements set out in the planning stage.
  6. Analyzing the results of the assessment or looking at the results and sharing them with stakeholders. This step also involves using the data to weed out any problem items or other issues that might be uncovered.

Each step contributes to the next, and useful analysis of the results is only possible if every previous stage has been done effectively. In future posts, I will go into each step in detail and highlight aspects you should be considering at each stage of the process.

assessment plan

Job Task Analysis Surveys Legally Required?

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Posted by John Kleeman

I had a lot of positive feedback on my blog post Making your Assessment Valid: 5 Tips from Miami. There is a lot of interest in how to ensure your assessment is valid, ensuring that it measures what it is supposed to measure.

If you are assessing for competence in a job role or for promotion into a job role, one critical step in making your assessment valid is to have a good, current analysis of what knowledge, skills and abilities are needed to do the job role. This is called a job task analysis (JTA), and the most common way of doing this analysis is to conduct a JTA Survey.

Job Task Analysis SurveyIn a JTA Survey, you ask existing people in the job role, or other experts, what tasks they do. A common practice is to survey them on how important each task is, how difficult it is and how often it is done. The resultant reports then guide the construction of the test blueprint and which topics and how many questions on each you include in the test.

If you cannot show that your assessment matches the requirements of a job, then your assessment is not only invalid but it is likely unfair — if you use it to select people for the job or measure competence in the job. And if you use an invalid assessment to select people for promotion or recruitment into the job, you may face legal action from people you reject.

Not only is this common sense, but it was also confirmed by a recent US district court ruling against the Boston Police Department. In this court case, sergeants who had been rejected for promotion to lieutenant following an exam sued that the assessment was unfair, and won.

The judge ruled that the exam was not sufficiently valid, because it omitted many job skills crucial for a police lieutenant role, and so it was not fair to be used to select for the role (see news report).

The 82-page judge’s ruling sets out in detail why the exam was unfair. He references the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures which state:

“There should be a job analysis which includes an analysis of the important work behavior(s) required for successful performance and their relative importance”

But the judge ruled that although a job analysis had been done, it had not been used properly in the test construction process. He said:

“When using a multiple choice exam, the developer must convert the job analysis result into a test plan to ensure a direct and strong relationship between the job analysis and the exam.

However, in this case, the job analysis was not used sufficiently well to construct the exam. The judge went on to say:

The Court cannot find, however, that the test plan ensured a strong relationship between the job analysis and the exam. … too many skills and abilities were missing from the … test outline. 

Crucially, he concluded:

“And a high score on the … exam simply was not a good indicator that a candidate would be a good lieutenant”.

Due to the pace of business change and technological advance, job roles are changing fast. Make sure that you conduct regular JTAs  of roles in your organization and make sure your assessments match the most important job tasks. Find out more about Job Task Analysis here.